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Yus (2005) found that :-))))) was associated with greater happiness in comparison to the default :-) but not in comparison to other greater-than-default emoticons such as :-))).Other quantitative studies have investigated differences in emoticon use between genders.In general, females use emoticons more often than males (Fox et al., 2007; Herring, 2003; Wolf, 2000; but cf. In sum, researchers have found that gender and medium impact emoticon use, as do contextual factors such as setting and communication purpose.

The more cues a message has, the stronger the recipients judge the sender’s emotions to be (Harris & Paradice, 2007).

Such qualitative research could provide for a richer and more nuanced understanding of emoticons and their interpretations in different contexts.

Like nonverbal cues in oral interaction, emoticons are not an add-on feature but are constitutive of CMC, and they occur in both native and nonnative speaker online discourse.

They identify three core functions of emoticons: "(a) emotion, mapped directly onto facial expression (e.g., happy or sad); (b) nonemotional meaning, mapped conventionally onto facial expression (e.g., a wink as indicating joking intent; an anxious smile); and (c) illocutionary force indicators that do not map conventionally onto facial expression (e.g., a smile as downgrading a complaint to a simple assertion)" (p. The authors stress that in many cases an emoticon does "not convey emotion but rather pragmatic meaning, and thus this function [as an illocutionary force indicating device, or IFID] needs to be understood in linguistic, rather than extralinguistic, terms" (2010, p. For example, an emoticon used after a negative comment does not indicate one smiling while saying something mean, but that the comment was not intended in a malicious manner" (2011, p. That emoticons can have pragmatic meaning was also shown in Golato and Taleghani-Nikazm's (2006) empirical analysis.

Chat participants employed emoticons "to display their orientation to the dispreferred action [such as a request] […] to their co-participants" (Golato & Taleghani-Nikazm, 2006, p. Generally, smileys and other emoticons are interpreted as affiliative (e.g., Darics, 2010; Golato & Taleghani-Nikazm, 2006; Holmes & Schnurr, 2005), but not always. (2008) report that a smiley placed after a negative verbal message can convey greater sarcasm than a message without an emoticon.




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