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Heartbleed is therefore exploited by sending a malformed heartbeat request with a small payload and large length field to the vulnerable party (usually a server) in order to elicit the victim's response, permitting attackers to read up to 64 kilobytes of the victim's memory that was likely to have been used previously by Open SSL.Where a Heartbeat Request might ask a party to "send back the four-letter word 'bird'", resulting in a response of "bird", a "Heartbleed Request" (a malicious heartbeat request) of "send back the 500-letter word 'bird'" would cause the victim to return "bird" followed by whatever 496 characters the victim happened to have in active memory.but it is unclear whether potential attackers were aware of it earlier and to what extent it was exploited.Based on examinations of audit logs by researchers, it has been reported that some attackers may have exploited the flaw for at least five months before discovery and announcement.The affected versions of Open SSL allocate a memory buffer for the message to be returned based on the length field in the requesting message, without regard to the actual size of that message's payload.Because of this failure to do proper bounds checking, the message returned consists of the payload, possibly followed by whatever else happened to be in the allocated memory buffer.Following Seggelmann's request to put the result of his work into Open SSL, his change was reviewed by Stephen N. Henson failed to notice a bug in Seggelmann's implementation, and introduced the flawed code into Open SSL's source code repository on December 31, 2011.

For example, the following test was introduced to determine whether a heartbeat request would trigger Heartbleed; it silently discards malicious requests.

The data obtained by a Heartbleed attack may include unencrypted exchanges between TLS parties likely to be confidential, including any form post data in users' requests.

Moreover, the confidential data exposed could include authentication secrets such as session cookies and passwords, which might allow attackers to impersonate a user of the service.

Heartbleed therefore constitutes a critical threat to confidentiality.

However, an attacker impersonating a victim may also alter data.




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